Bibliography: Gun Control (page 06 of 10)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Positive Universe website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Kenneth M. Mash, Drug Abuse Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Patricia P. Dahl, Brian A. Sponsler, Richard Spano, Zeke Perez, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, Gene Bonham, Micah Ann Wixom, and Russell Jacoby.

Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention (2010). Guns on Campus: A Current Debate. E-Fact Sheet. Almost all U.S. college campuses ban concealed weapons. But in the aftermath of the tragic shooting deaths at Virginia Tech in 2007, the debate on whether guns should be permitted at colleges and universities has intensified. Dozens of states have considered proposals to lift bans on concealed weapons at colleges and universities, but so far none have been successful. While there is no research on the effect of allowing guns at colleges and universities when it comes to shooting violence, according to "Violence Prevention: The Evidence" (World Health Organization, 2009) "jurisdictions with restrictive firearms legislation and lower firearms ownership tend to have lower levels of gun violence. Measures include bans, licensing schemes, minimum ages for buyers, background checks and safe storage requirements." Students for Concealed Carry on Campus and other right-to-carry activists argue that college campuses would be safer if students and other private citizens (faculty, staff, and visitors) were allowed to carry concealed weapons in order to protect themselves. However, a growing body of evidence shows that concealed carry permit holders are a threat to public safety. The American Association of State Colleges and Universities and more than 90 colleges and universities from 24 states have signed a resolution by the Campaign to Keep Guns Off Campus that they are opposed to legislation that would mandate that colleges and universities allow students to carry concealed weapons on campus. According to the association, 23 states currently allow public campuses or state systems to decide their own weapons policies, with nearly all choosing to be "gun-free" ("The Denver Post," Dec. 2, 2009).   [More]  Descriptors: Colleges, Weapons, Gun Control, Violence

Mash, Kenneth M. (2013). Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect, Thought & Action. The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have reexamined their policies related to dangerous weapons in the wake of the Supreme Court's decision in "District of Columbia v. Heller," which sought to end speculation over whether the Second Amendment's right to bear arms was an individual right or whether it was a right that pertained only to use in a militia.The author asserts that, while even the First Amendment's freedom of speech protection is subject to regulation, limiting a person's right to exercise their Second Amendment right is unclear, because there has not yet been much litigation on the issue. Furthermore, the author ponders the "chilling affects" of not only guns on campus, but also on faculty, students, and visiting speakers presenting and publishing controversial topics.   [More]  Descriptors: School Safety, Gun Control, Campuses, Civil Rights

Domain, Melinda Willoughby (2014). Decision-Making Processes in Texas School Districts That Arm Personnel, ProQuest LLC. This qualitative phenomenological study employed narrative inquiry to describe the decision-making processes that Texas school districts followed in enacting firearms policies that allow school employees to carry concealed weapons on district property. Exploration of the lived experiences of eight Texas superintendents in such schools contributed to the description. Participants were interviewed and asked what influenced their district's decision to arm employees and what decision-making processes the district followed in enacting their firearms policies. Interview data was analyzed using NVivo 10 for Mac-Beta to code and categorize data into themes as recommended by Creswell (2012). Findings include factors that influence districts' decisions to arm employees such as law enforcement response time, district vulnerability to intrusion, and the school shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary in Newtown, Connecticut. Additional findings support the concept of a common decision-making protocol schools can follow when enacting a firearms policy that allows for armed employees. The findings of this study suggest that the arming of school personnel can be systematically investigated and evaluated for appropriateness in any given school district. The study also finds that a school district's needs should be of primary consideration to superintendents and school boards when determining whether or not to pursue a firearms policy for employees. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:…   [More]  Descriptors: Decision Making, School Districts, Weapons, Gun Control

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education (2007). 2007: A Year In Review. The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community was also touched by gun violence as a fellow student shot two DSU students. One of the victims later died of her injuries. Other significant events that occurred throughout the year are presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, United States History, Gun Control, Violence

Spano, Richard; Pridemore, William Alex; Bolland, John (2012). Specifying the Role of Exposure to Violence and Violent Behavior on Initiation of Gun Carrying: A Longitudinal Test of Three Models of Youth Gun Carrying, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Two waves of longitudinal data from 1,049 African American youth living in extreme poverty are used to examine the impact of exposure to violence (Time 1) and violent behavior (Time 1) on first time gun carrying (Time 2). Multivariate logistic regression results indicate that (a) violent behavior (Time 1) increased the likelihood of initiation of gun carrying (Time 2) by 76% after controlling for exposure to violence at Time 1, which is consistent with the stepping stone model of youth gun carrying, and (b) youth who were both exposed to violence at Time 1 and engaged in violent behavior at Time 1 were more than 2.5 times more likely to initiate gun carrying at Time 2 compared to youth who had neither of these characteristics, which supports the cumulative risk model of youth gun carrying. The authors discuss the implications of these findings in clarifying the role of violence in the community on youth gun carrying and the primary prevention of youth gun violence.   [More]  Descriptors: Weapons, Gun Control, Longitudinal Studies, Safety

Dahl, Patricia P.; Bonham, Gene, Jr.; Reddington, Frances P. (2016). Community College Faculty: Attitudes toward Guns on Campus, Community College Journal of Research and Practice. This exploratory research surveyed faculty who instruct in community colleges from 18 states about their attitudes toward the concealed carry gun policies that allow appropriately licensed citizens to carry a handgun in public places such as college campuses. Building upon previous research involving 4-year institutions, we surveyed 1,889 community college faculty who work in states that allow some flexibility in determining concealed carry policies and practices. Descriptive statistics, background characteristics, exposure to the use and ownership of firearms, and attitudinal questions about safety concerns, victimization history, and opinions about allowing concealed carry on community college campuses were analyzed. Our analyses revealed that the majority of community college faculty felt safe on their campuses, were not supportive of having students, faculty, or visitors conceal carry on their campuses, and they believed anyone granted a concealed carry permit should have to first pass a firearms training course. Our findings add to the current guns-on-campus discussions by illustrating that there is an across-the-board consensus among different types of postsecondary education institutions and levels of faculty who wish to stave off permitting lawful guns on their campuses. Further, our study suggests that faculty overwhelmingly feel that allowing guns on campuses would change the atmosphere from one that feels safe to one that feels uncharacteristically threatening. The number of American colleges and universities that permit concealed firearms on campus is small, but the number is growing as is the magnitude of the debate regarding guns on campus. Research has been conducted to ascertain the popularity of this policy among the major players: namely students, faculty, staff, and administration. Most of the research has focused on the community members of 4-year colleges and universities. This research, while replicating a study by Thompson, Price, Dake, and Teeple (2013), investigated the attitudes and perceptions of faculty who instruct in community colleges from 18 states. The states were chosen because in these locations the colleges have some flexibility in determining their weapons policy.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, College Faculty, Teacher Attitudes, Weapons

Hanratty, Laura A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Florentino, Samantha R. (2016). Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Teaching Package Utilizing Behavioral Skills Training and In Situ Training to Teach Gun Safety Skills in a Preschool Classroom, Journal of Behavioral Education. There are a number of different safety threats that children face in their lives. One infrequent, but highly dangerous situation a child can face is finding a firearm. Hundreds of children are injured or killed by firearms each year. Fortunately, behavioral skills training (BST) and in situ training (IST) are effective approaches for teaching a number of different skills, including safety skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a teaching package for preschool teachers to learn to conduct BST to teach safety skills. Following teacher-implemented BST, the experimenter completed in situ training and supplemental instructions. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of this teaching package implemented by the teacher and experimenter with five preschoolers. Five children demonstrated the skills following IST and additional reinforcement or time out. The use of additional reinforcement, as well as treatment fidelity are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Preschool Children, Weapons, Safety, Gun Control

Wells, William; Chermak, Steven (2011). Individual-Level Risk Factors for Gun Victimization in a Sample of Probationers, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Interventions aimed at preventing the important problem of gun injuries could be improved with an understanding of whether there are unique factors that place individuals at an increased risk of gun victimization. Much remains to be known about the victims of gun violence. The purpose of this article is to assess whether there are individual-level variables uniquely related to the likelihood of experiencing a gun victimization in a sample of probationers, individuals already at a heightened risk for criminal victimization. Self-report data were collected from 235 felony probationers about, for instance, gun and nongun victimization, gang involvement, and drug sales. Results show different variables are related to nongun victimization and gun victimization. In the current sample, involvement in gun crimes are linked to an increased risk of gun victimization. Violent offending and residential stability are associated with an increased chance of crime victimization.   [More]  Descriptors: Weapons, Risk, Gun Control, Victims of Crime

Morse, Andrew; Sisneros, Lauren; Perez, Zeke; Sponsler, Brian A. (2016). Guns on Campus: The Architecture and Momentum of State Policy Action, NASPA – Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education. "Guns on Campus: The Architecture and Momentum of State Policy Action" offers a detailed summary of state legislative action and higher education system policy decisions that have occurred in two specific categories: (1) States that have permitted or are seeking to permit guns on campus; and (2) States that have prohibited or are seeking to prohibit guns on campus. Report sections highlight general themes for enacted bills and provides detailed examples of state legislative activity. The theme analysis of the policy areas concludes with considerations designed to inform policymakers and campus leaders as they consider policy action and move toward the implementation of laws, rules, and regulations governing firearms on postsecondary campuses. The following are appended: (1) Guns on Campus Policies: State Legislation; (2) Guns on Campus Policies: System Policies; (3) Guns on Campus Policies: Court Cases; and (4) Guns on Campus Policies: Legislation Introduced in 2015.   [More]  Descriptors: Weapons, Gun Control, Educational Policy, Public Policy

Wixom, Micah Ann (2014). States Respond to School Safety Concerns with 2013 Legislation. School Safety: 2013 Legislative Session, Education Commission of the States. School safety policies are constantly evolving, often in response to fatal events. After several high-profile and tragic shootings over the past 15 years, school safety has become a major focus for parents, school officials, policymakers and the public nationwide. ECS [Education Commission of the States] conducted a scan of school safety-related laws passed in 2013 legislative sessions to better understand trends in policy. This report highlights the ongoing efforts of lawmakers to provide students with safe places to learn.   [More]  Descriptors: School Safety, State Legislation, State Policy, Violence

Massey-Jones, Darla (2013). Perception of School Safety of a Local School, ProQuest LLC. This qualitative case study investigated the perception of school safety, what current policies and procedures were effective, and what policies and procedures should be implemented. Data were collected in two steps, by survey and focus group interview. Analysis determined codes that revealed several themes relevant to the perception of school safety. The findings from the study suggested that some school safety problems existed, but 99% of those surveyed reported they felt safe. The majority of those surveyed, indicated they had received safety training. The interviews revealed that teachers and administrators should not carry guns on campus, awareness training was needed in the mental health area, training with first responders was also needed, and building access should be improved. Conclusions in this study were that a key to safety perception is to make it a priority, develop and implement a regular plan of maintenance, and schedule time to address safety needs. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:…   [More]  Descriptors: School Safety, Qualitative Research, Case Studies, Attitudes

Jacoby, Russell (2007). Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons, Chronicle of Higher Education. The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful about what they say. The Second Amendment–the right to bear arms–trumps the First Amendment, the freedom of speech. By virtue of fact and reason this is bizarre. The Second Amendment remains disputed: Does the right to bear arms refer to state militias or private individuals? But apart from matters of law, how is it that verbal slights provoke widespread condemnation, while a crazed shooting elicits reflections that mainly focus on demented students and failures of security? Why are words treated as more dangerous than lethal weapons? In this article, the author points out that access to guns is the reason behind university killings. Instead of zealously controlling firearms, more resources are poured into improving the response time of SWAT teams, building additional security gates, and fine-tuning surveillance. Already many high schools look like prisons replete with intimidating fences and controlled entrances. He points out that concern should not only be focused on offensive words, but also on lethal weapons.   [More]  Descriptors: Freedom of Speech, Weapons, Gun Control, Constitutional Law

Makarios, Matthew D.; Pratt, Travis C. (2012). The Effectiveness of Policies and Programs that Attempt to Reduce Firearm Violence: A Meta-Analysis, Crime & Delinquency. In response to rising rates of firearms violence that peaked in the mid-1990s, a wide range of policy interventions have been developed in an attempt to reduce violent crimes committed with firearms. Although some of these approaches appear to be effective at reducing gun violence, methodological variations make comparing effects across program evaluations difficult. Accordingly, in this article, the authors use meta-analytic techniques to determine what works in reducing gun violence. The results indicate that comprehensive community-based law enforcement initiatives have performed the best at reducing gun violence.   [More]  Descriptors: Weapons, Violence, Crime, Gun Control

Obeng, Cecilia (2010). Should Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools? Perspectives of Teachers, Journal of School Health. Background: Gun-related injuries and deaths among children occur at disproportionately high rates in the United States. Children who live in homes with guns are the most likely victims. This study describes teachers' views on whether gun safety should be taught to children in the preschool and elementary years. Methods: A total of 150 survey questionnaires were distributed to public and private school teachers in preschools and elementary schools in 2 counties of a Midwestern state. Results: In total, 62% of the 102 respondents indicated that they favored the teaching of gun safety, while 13% disapproved and 25% had no opinion. Overall, 28.4% of the respondents supported the teaching of gun safety in grades pre-K (pre-kindergarten) through first grade. About 54% indicated that police or trained military personnel should do the teaching of this subject in schools, while 6.9% suggested that teachers should do the teaching. Conclusion: With a majority of the teachers in favor of teaching gun safety in the schools, a larger study should be conducted that explores the introduction of gun safety into the curriculum in preschool through grade 6. Such a study should evaluate the efficacy of teaching gun safety as a measure to prevent gun violence and injuries involving guns.   [More]  Descriptors: Weapons, Preschool Teachers, Elementary School Teachers, Teacher Attitudes

Goss, Kristin A. (2007). Good Policy, Not Stories, Can Reduce Violence, Chronicle of Higher Education. When news broke April 16 of the worst mass shooting in U.S. history, the question many horrified Americans most wanted to answer was, "Who was the shooter?" It's an urgent and understandable question, but one that rests on a dangerous assumption: that if everyone only knew more about the killer, then what he did would make sense–and everyone would know what to do to prevent such a thing from happening again. The assumption that everyone can make policy based on individual stories is dangerous because, for a variety of reasons, individual stories call everyone's attention to factors that make those cases unique, not factors that tie them together. What ties these massacres together is guns. In the immediate aftermath of the Virginia Tech killings, before the gunman was publicly named, speculation swirled about his identity and motives. He was rumored to be, alternately, a lone gunman with no known ties to the university; a jealous boyfriend seeking revenge on his girlfriend; a disgruntled former student seeking revenge against the university; or a Chinese national possibly bent on harming America. The following day everyone learned that the gunman was a troubled 23-year-old South Korean national who was also a resident student at Virginia Tech. Important as that information may be to law-enforcement officers piecing together the crime, it's hard to see how these details can help everyone frame meaningful policy to prevent further shootings. Understanding an assailant's motives or place in the social order tells everyone very little about what to do next. In this article, the author points out that individual stories of school violence should lead to framing policies that respond not only to individual events such as school violence but also to broader patterns such as mass shootings or gun violence in general.   [More]  Descriptors: History, Gun Control, Violence, College Students

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