Bibliography: Gun Control (page 07 of 10)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Positive Universe website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Mary O'Connell, Shannon Frattaroli, Siri Thoresen, Lars Mehlum, Susan B. Sorenson, Chris Rasmussen, Steven M. Janosik, Elizabeth Richardson Vigdor, Emily F. Rothman, and David Hemenway.

Langmann, Caillin (2012). Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using data obtained from Statistics Canada from 1974 to 2008. Three statistical methods were applied to search for any associated effects of firearms legislation. Interrupted time series regression, ARIMA, and Joinpoint analysis were performed. Neither were any significant beneficial associations between firearms legislation and homicide or spousal homicide rates found after the passage of three Acts by the Canadian Parliament–Bill C-51 (1977), C-17 (1991), and C-68 (1995)–nor were effects found after the implementation of licensing in 2001 and the registration of rifles and shotguns in 2003. After the passage of C-68, a decrease in the rate of the decline of homicide by firearm was found by interrupted regression. Joinpoint analysis also found an increasing trend in homicide by firearm rate post the enactment of the licensing portion of C-68. Other factors found to be associated with homicide rates were median age, unemployment, immigration rates, percentage of population in low-income bracket, Gini index of income equality, population per police officer, and incarceration rate. This study failed to demonstrate a beneficial association between legislation and firearm homicide rates between 1974 and 2008.   [More]  Descriptors: Certification, Age, Foreign Countries, Weapons

Hayden, Sara (2003). Family Metaphors and the Nation: Promoting a Politics of Care through the Million Mom March, Quarterly Journal of Speech. The causes for which maternity has been invoked are as divergent as they are ubiquitous, yet the popularity of maternal politics among activists is not matched by an equally enthusiastic or unified assessment from scholars. On the contrary, scholars vigorously debate maternal appeals' strategic efficacy as well as their implications for gender norms. In this essay I argue that George Lakoff's discussion of the nation-as-family metaphor illuminates the political potency and the potential effectiveness of maternal appeals as well as their implications for gender norms. I illustrate my argument through an analysis of the Million Mom March.   [More]  Descriptors: Politics, Figurative Language, Norms, Gender Issues

Roberto, Anthony J. (2004). Touchstone Award, Communication Teacher. The extended parallel process model (EPPM) is receiving increasing attention in many undergraduate and graduate persuasion and health communication textbooks and classes. The EPPM is concerned with the effect of four variables on behavior: (1) perceived susceptibility; (2) perceived severity; (3) response-efficacy; and (4) self-efficacy. The first two variables comprise "perceived threat"; the other two variables comprise "perceived efficacy". Three outcomes are possible, depending on an individual's level of perceived threat and perceived efficacy: (1) no response; (2) a fear control response; and (3) a danger control response. If the perceived threat is low, "no response" will occur. That is, if individuals do not believe they are at risk (i.e., low susceptibility) or believe the risk is trivial (i.e., low severity), individuals simply will not be motivated to pay attention or respond to the message. If the perceived threat is high and the perceived efficacy is low, individuals engage in "fear control". That is, when individuals perceive a threat, but are not provided with an effective means to reduce the threat, individuals focus on how to manage their fear (e.g., denying the risk, refusing to think about the risk, ignoring the message) instead of how to manage the danger (e.g., engaging in the recommended response). When "both" the perceived threat and the perceived efficacy are high, individuals engage in "danger control". That is, when individuals perceive a threat and are provided with an effective means to reduce the threat, individuals will focus on potential solutions to the problem, which can lead to attitude or behavior change in the advocated direction. This activity provides students with three relevant and memorable examples that generate a considerable amount of discussion. It reviews numerous persuasion and health communication concepts and theories, and introduces students to a wide variety of social and health issues that affect their daily lives and the lives of those around them. Perhaps most importantly, this activity provides students with several examples of how communication theory can be put into practice. A list of references and suggested readings is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Textbooks, Self Efficacy, Behavior Modification, Behavior Change

O'Connell, Mary (2012). The Joyce Foundation 2011 Annual Report, Joyce Foundation. In a period such as this, marked by extreme political partisanship and apparent gridlock at the federal level, it would be tempting to throw up one's hands in frustration. But this is just the time that a foundation like Joyce can add the most value–because the Joyce team members are non-partisan, not subject to the pressures of political and business cycles, and have the freedom to explore new ideas and support projects that others cannot or will not take on. So, the team is optimistic that it can make a difference, though they do know it is important to pick their battles wisely. This year, they think it paid off to focus their attention on policy at the state and local levels, where they saw some really important progress and where they saw tangible improvements in the quality of life for people in the Great Lakes region. Each of their other programs has seen similar opportunity at the state level. Their efforts to promote a more healthy democracy through campaign finance and redistricting reform, their work with law enforcement and policy makers to reduce gun violence, and their strong support of diversity in the arts, are all well-received at the community level, where individuals are most affected. Thoughtful implementation, careful evaluation, and a sustained effort to promote what is successful, will be the focus of their efforts going forward. Without putting their shoulders to the wheel, they and their grantees cannot expect to see impact–the kind of impact that turns good policy into real practice people can see and experience every day. This paper presents the Foundation's annual report for 2011.   [More]  Descriptors: Philanthropic Foundations, Institutional Mission, Access to Education, Disadvantaged

Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B. (2006). Are Temporary Restraining Orders More Likely to Be Issued When Applications Mention Firearms?, Evaluation Review. Restraining orders, an important legal intervention for victims of domestic violence, have broad potential for injury prevention. Using data from one of the busiest restraining order clinics in the nation, the authors examined 1,354 applicants' descriptions of abuse. Most (89.2%) applicants were issued a restraining order. A total of 16.0% of applicants mentioned a firearm in their descriptions of abuse; doing so was not associated with restraining order issuance. About 1 in 20 applicants, even if issued a restraining order, would not be protected by the federal firearm purchase and possession prohibitions because they had not lived with or had a child with the defendant. However, the proportion of these individuals who report threatened or actual use of firearms against them is similar to that of other applicants. Federal and, when relevant, state law should be modified to include these persons.   [More]  Descriptors: Family Violence, Gun Control, Federal Legislation, Crime Prevention

Rasmussen, Chris; Johnson, Gina (2008). The Ripple Effect of Virginia Tech: Assessing the Nationwide Impact on Campus Safety and Security Policy and Practice, Midwestern Higher Education Compact. This report is the result of a nationwide survey conducted in March 2008 of student life officers and campus safety directors to assess the impact of the April 2007 shootings at Virginia Tech on campus safety and security policy and practice. Discussion areas include: (1) Student Privacy vs. Need-to-Know; (2) Prevention, Mitigation and Recovery; (3) Notification Systems; (4) Security Monitoring and Enhancement; (5) Recognition and Response to Student Behavior; and (6) Budgetary Impacts. The survey asked respondents to comment on the nature of their relationship with municipal law enforcement, local and regional media, and state-level agencies both before and after the events at Virginia Tech. Without exception respondents indicated that the relationship of their institution with municipal law enforcement and with state-level agencies had remained about the same or improved since the events at Virginia Tech; a similar pattern of responses was seen in describing the relationship with local and regional media outlets. The tragedy at Virginia Tech also raised many questions and renewed debates about gun violence and weapons regulation. The events brought increased exposure to groups such as Students for Concealed Carry on Campus, which argue that the impact of such incidents could be prevented or minimized if students and faculty were allowed to carry guns on campus. In contrast, the Virginia Tech tragedy has emboldened groups and individuals who oppose extending concealed carry rights to college campuses. The focus of others has been on improving efforts to track and screen potential weapons buyers to prevent individuals with mental illness or a history of violent or threatening behavior from accessing guns. Additional resources are listed. (Contains 12 figures and 1 table.) [This initiative was supported by AIG Higher Education Risk Solutions and Lexington Insurance Company.]   [More]  Descriptors: Tragedy, Campuses, Student Behavior, Mental Disorders

Thoresen, Siri; Mehlum, Lars (2006). Suicide in Peacekeepers: Risk Factors for Suicide versus Accidental Death, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. To investigate risk factors for suicide in veterans of peacekeeping, 43 suicides and 41 fatal accidents in Norwegian peacekeepers (1978 to 1995) were compared in a psychological autopsy study. Mental health problems were the most important risk factor for suicide. Both living alone and the break-up of a love relationship contributed uniquely to suicide risk, even when controlling for mental health problems. No peacekeeping-related factor was associated with suicide. Preventive measures should focus on firearms control, improved detection systems for mental health problems in the military, and peer support through veterans' associations.   [More]  Descriptors: Suicide, Death, Comparative Analysis, Psychological Studies

Frattaroli, Shannon; Teret, Stephen P. (2006). Understanding and Informing Policy Implementation: A Case Study of the Domestic Violence Provisions of the Maryland Gun Violence Act, Evaluation Review. The Maryland Gun Violence Act, enacted into law in 1996, explicitly authorized courts to order batterers to surrender their firearms through civil protective orders. It also vested law enforcement with the explicit authority to remove guns when responding to a domestic violence complaint. In order to assess how these laws were implemented, we designed a case study and collected data from in-depth, key informant interviews, court observations, and relevant documents. We present findings from this study and recommend how to increase the likelihood that policies designed to separate batterers and guns are implemented in a way that will result in greater protections for victims of domestic violence.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Family Violence, Gun Control, State Legislation

Janosik, Steven M. (2005). Anticipating Legal Issues in Higher Education, NASPA Journal. Learning how to recognize and anticipate the legal risks associated with student affairs practice is a crucial skill all successful administrators must develop. This can be done by developing a sense for scanning the broad legal environment and being aware of legal issues in other parts of the education enterprise.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Student Personnel Services, College Administration, Elementary Secondary Education

Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David (2006). Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees, Evaluation Review. Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home. Those most likely to report having a gun were White, earned $25,000 or more per year, had served in the military, engaged in problem gambling, and had attempted homicide or threatened their partner with a firearm. Recommendations for strengthening relevant gun laws both within and outside of Massachusetts are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Males, Weapons, Gun Control, Family Violence

Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S. (2006). Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States, Evaluation Review. Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation.   [More]  Descriptors: Courts, Weapons, Laws, Family Violence

Sorenson, Susan B. (2006). Taking Guns from Batterers: Public Support and Policy Implications, Evaluation Review. Federal law prohibits the purchase or possession of a firearm by persons convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence and those under certain domestic violence restraining orders. The purpose of this investigation is to examine public sentiment about the removal of firearms in the absence of a restraining order or misdemeanor conviction following domestic violence. An experimental vignette design was used in a telephone survey of a cross-sectional statewide sample of 522 community-residing adults in California. Study design and population weights were applied; the findings, thus, are a reasonable approximation for the population of California. In more than 3,500 vignettes, the abusive behavior was judged to be wrong, illegal, or should be illegal (98.7%, 73.1%, and 77.7%, respectively). Although only about one half (56.5%) of the scenarios were thought to merit the issuance of a restraining order, three fourths (77.4%) were thought to merit the removal of firearms. Multivariate analyses indicated greater support for firearms removal when the abuse involved sexual or physical abuse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranged from 2.65 to 5.64) or a gun (AOR = 6.54). Men were the sole population group with significantly lower support for firearm removal following domestic violence (AOR = 0.39). The men who wanted firearms to remain did not differ from other men on any of the measured variables. In sum, there is substantial support, especially when a gun is displayed in a domestic violence incident, for policies requiring the removal of firearms from abusers.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Weapons, Telephone Surveys, Males

Gray-Adams, Karen; Sinclair, Beth (2004). Report on the Implementation of the Gun-Free Schools Act in the States and Outlying Areas: School Year 2001-2002. Final Report, Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, US Department of Education. The Gun-Free Schools Act (GFSA) requires that each state or outlying area receiving federal funds under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) have a law that requires all local educational agencies (LEAs) in the state or outlying area to expel from school for at least one year any student found bringing a firearm to school. Their laws must also authorize the LEA chief administering officer to modify any such expulsion on a case-by-case basis. In addition, the GFSA states that it must be construed so as to be consistent with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Following information on data interpretation and quality, this report is divided into three sections and summarizes the 2001-2002 data submitted by the states and outlying areas. The first section is a brief summary of the overall findings. The second section presents a summary of the 2001-2002 data in bulleted, graphic, and tabular form as well as a comparison between the 2001-2002 data and data submitted in previous years. The third section presents a pair of pages for each state and outlying area. Each of these pages contains the data submitted by the state and outlying area, as well as any caveats or notes accompanying the data. Finally, there are two appendices to the report: Appendix A contains a copy of the Gun-Free Schools Act and Appendix B contains a copy of the 2001-2002 GFSA states and outlying areas data collection instrument.   [More]  Descriptors: Weapons, Elementary Secondary Education, School Safety, Disabilities

Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A. (2006). Do Laws Restricting Access to Firearms by Domestic Violence Offenders Prevent Intimate Partner Homicide?, Evaluation Review. Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement officers to confiscate firearms at a domestic violence scene. The authors find that female intimate partner homicide rates decline 7% after a state passes a restraining order law. They find no effect from the domestic violence misdemeanor or confiscation laws.   [More]  Descriptors: Family Violence, Gun Control, Crime Prevention, Homicide

Seave, Paul L. (2006). Disarming Batterers through Restraining Orders: The Promise and the Reality in California, Evaluation Review. Laws that prohibit persons under a domestic violence restraining order from purchasing or possessing a firearm are a primary way to keep guns out of the hands of batterers. In July 2005, the California Attorney General's Task Force on the Local Criminal Justice Response to Domestic Violence issued a report called Keeping the Promise: Victim Safety and Batterer Accountability. The report focused, in part, on the extent to which California's domestic violence restraining order system succeeds in disarming batterers. Restraining orders are the principal means by which the criminal justice system can accomplish this objective. The Task Force found that criminal justice agencies and the courts performed poorly in this area. The report strongly recommended that a more strategic, collaborative use of laws already on the books could significantly improve performance, without much additional expense. What follows is a summary of those finding and recommendations.   [More]  Descriptors: Family Violence, Gun Control, State Legislation, State Regulation

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